Adjuvant therapy is described in the article on medicine as complementary or supportive therapy measures.
Defines the specific preparation of a pharmaceutical drug administered to a patient. Administration methods include solid drugs (tablet, capsule), semisolid (balm, gel) or liquid (drops, injection solution). The administration method substantial influences the efficacy of a drug.
Mostly harmless foreign substances (e.g. flower pollen) that the immune system erroneously treats as threatening. This leads to an overreaction of the body's defence (allergy). See also: Antigens
Allergy is a misguided, excessive reaction by the immune system to noninfectious, ordinarily harmless substance called antigen or allergen. The body reacts with different signs of inflammation and an excessive production of antibodies, especially type IgE.
Specific antibodies produced by the organism against other antibodies or antibody molecules (ideotypes) also named secondary antibody.
So-called globular proteins in various subclasses which are directed against the components of antigen (pathogens) and bind them together (part of the immune response). With allergies, antibodies are produced that erroneously focus on harmless foreign substances (allergens). See also: Sensitisation phase
Usually foreign substances (pathogens) that bind an antibody (Antibody Generating) and thus provoke a defensive reaction in the immune system. See also: Autoimmune reaction
Inherited susceptibility to allergic diseases. Atopy is not to be confused with allergy.
Non-detection of endogenous structural components by the immune system. This leads to the pathological (abnormal) production of antibodies against the body's own structures, which manifests itself mostly as a chronic autoimmune disease.
Implementation of a treatment program, taking into account all factors that may potentially be an influence and includes standardised documentation. The results in the study group are compared with those of the control group without intervention. (Intervention: Medical intervention to prevent or reverse the onset or progression of a disease.)
Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease which most likely occurs within the small intestine (ileum) or the large intestine (colon). Typical symptoms are abdominal cramps and bloody diarrhea.
A particular domain of the variable regions located on the light and heavy chains of an immunoglobulin (antigen binding site). These sites induce the production of antibodies, the so called anti-idiotypic antibodies, in the same organism and can cause an internal regulation.
Immunoglobulin E plays an important role in allergies because this subclass of antibodies can circulate (cell-bound) for years and contributes to the typical allergy symptoms with each antigen contact, mainly through the release of histamine.
Is a cluster of interlocking antigens and the specific antigen antibodies. Also called an antigen-antibody complex.
Reaction of the immune system in response to substances, which are recognized as foreign to the body. A distinction is made between an inborn and an acquired immune Response.
Overall defence system of biological organisms to foreign substances or other organisms. The human immune system is composed of specialised proteins (antibodies), immune cells and immune organs (such as thymus, spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes). It is the carrier of the body's immune response.
Non-specific immunity is the innate, non-pathogen-specific immune response of the body to foreign pathogens. Specific immunity is only acquired through contact with specific pathogens (e.g. children's diseases).
Proteins (albumins) from the class of globulins which are formed in vertebrates in response to certain substances, called antigens. Antibodies are designed to serve the immune system. Antibodies are produced by a class of white blood cells, called B lymphocytes.
Immunomodulation means the impact of pharmacologically active substances on the immune system. This has the function of dampening the immune system (immune suppression), such as after a transplant, and avoiding reactions caused by rejection or for immune stimulation, i.e. an increase of the natural immune response for the treatment of infections.
Is a type of treatment which influences the activity of the immune system. The treatment can amplify the response of the immune system (activation) or attenuate the activity of the immune system (suppression).
Medical measure with a particular disease pattern. The latter in turn comprises – unlike a diagnosis – the overall health condition of a patient.
Diagnosis and treatment / medication specially tailored to the individual patient, his / her disease and medical history. This is the best way possible to avoid default / general preparations.
Entry of microorganisms (viruses, fungi, bacteria) into the organism and their local propagation. An infection can occur, for example, via the skin, respiratory system, intestine, open wounds.
Administration form of a drug. Inhaling aerosols lead to ahumidification and a cleansing of the respiratory tract.Viscous secretions can come loose through inhalation.
Peptide hormones belonging to cytokines, i.e. they are the body's own messenger substances of the immune system cells. While IL-2 is secreted by T lymphocytes and have a positive effect on the growth of these cells, IL-10 inhibits the activity of macrophages and stems the defensive reaction. Interleukins specifically stimulate growth, maturation and division of certain cells of the immune system or prevent exactly these processes of activation.
Major group of blood cells that carry no blood pigment (haemoglobin). Leukocytes (white blood cells) are responsible for very different functions in the human immune system. They are produced in the human bone marrow. See also: Erythrocytes
The lymphatic system is a complex system of lymphoid organs (thymus, bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, etc.) and the thin-walled lymphatic system. This system produces and transports lymphatic fluid. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system. See also: Lymphocytes
Subgroup of leukocytes. Their main task is the targeted defence against infectious agents. Lymphocytes are also active against modified endogenous cells (e.g. tumour cells). A distinction is made between the subgroup of T and B lymphocytes that mature after their formation in the bone marrow in the thymus or bone marrow and are jointly responsible for the acquired immune response.
Is an administration form for liquid compoundings, which are applied through the nose. The liquid is applied as a highly-dispersed aerosol on the nasal mucosa via a spray flask. For this purpose the nozzle of the spray flask is inserted in the nostril.
Parenteral literally means "bypassing the intestine" and refers to the way in which substances or pathogens enter the body by bypassing the intestinal tract, usually in the form of injections.
Usually the pH-value of the skin lies within a slightly acidic range. This explains the term “the acid mantle of the skin”. This acid mantle prevents the penetration and amplification of germs in the skin.
Proteins (also called albumins) are the "basic element of life". They are molecules composed of amino acids that determine the structure and function of every living cell. They are responsible for the shape and structure of the cells as well as the biochemical processes of metabolism. They have many diverse responsibilities. For example, there are structural proteins (e.g., collagen), enzyme proteins, transport proteins (e.g. hemoglobin), immune proteins, hormone proteins.
A retrospective study is a case-control study that seeks to retrospectively identify the success of a treatment or the influence of factors that may cause or maintain a disease.
A variety of different rheumatic diseases are summarized within the term rheumatism. A distinction is made between inflammatory and degenerative rheumatic diseases.
The most common inflammatory form of rheumatism is rheumatoid arthritis in which the immune system wrongly attacks its own junctions.
The most common inflammatory disease of the joints. The causes of the disease are still largely unclear. Presumably, genetic factors play a role, because the risk of disease is higher if rheumatism is present in the family. In addition, various environmental factors are possible triggers, such as infections and allergies.
At initial contact with an allergen, specific antibodies are erroneously produced (not yet an allergic reaction!). Upon each following contact, the immune system shows excessive immediate reactions (chronic allergy).
Belong to the cell group of lymphocyte, which are the smallest cells of the white blood cells (leucocytes).These can be subdivided into B-cells, T-cells and natural killer T-cells. ”T” stands for thymus, the organ where the cells are produced and from which the cells migrate to the bone marrow for maturation.
T-cells play a significant role for the immune defense. They recognize structures which are foreign to the body and assist in the elimination of these structures. The binding of a T-cell-antigen-receptor to a foreign antigen triggers the immune Response.